Malachy Kelly rebalance your life

Is your dinner giving you cancer?
In the UK, one in four people die of cancer. In Ireland, one in three will die from it. This is a startling statistic, and may be a damning indictment of modern lifestyles. With the wealth of research that has been carried out on all aspects of cancer, why is it still killing one in three in this country? (one in four if skin cancer is excluded).

What are the factors which cause cancer? Many associations are well known and high in the consciousness of the general public, such as tobacco smoking and excessive exposure to UV radiation from sunlight. What is much lower in the awareness of the general population is that we may very well be eating ourselves to death.

There is an ongoing trend globally towards obesity which is worrying health care service providers. This is mainly being combated by informing the general public of the health risks associated with obesity, focusing on heart disease and diabetes. Rarely if ever is cancer mentioned as a an associated risk, even though there is significant evidence to show this may be the case, as concluded by Carroll, who stated: “The evidence has been most consistent for endometrial cancer, breast cancer in postmenopausal women, and renal cell cancer. More variable results have been reported for colorectal, prostate and pancreatic cancer.”

Researchers have been able to identify risk associated foods by looking at the varying incidences of different types of cancers which occur in regions which have traditionally had different or very different nutritional practices, eg., Japan Vs India Vs western Europe. Numerous studies have found variances in cancer levels in populations where the diet is more traditional, but when members of those respective communities adopt a western style diet themselves, cancer demographics begin to resemble those of the west. In general those consuming a western style diet have vastly elevated levels of cancers of certain types. Is this due to an over consumption of processed foods?

According to a review of the available research on heat processed foods by Jägerstad and Skog, “food-borne toxicants present in cooked foods are possibly or probably carcinogenic to humans”. This review adds weight to the arguments for moving towards fresh food. Other studies identify red meat as a high risk factor in certain types of cancer as documented in a 1995 review by Willett “recent data have supported a causative role for red meat in the development of colon and prostate cancers“.

Thankfully, some foods have been proven to have positive effects on cancer related health. Fresh fruit and vegetables, besides being excellent sources of many vitamins and minerals, also contain a number of compounds known to be beneficial in preventing or even treating cancers. Brassica vegetables, including cabbage, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower have been shown conclusively in almost 100 studies to have the effect of decreasing the risk of cancers in the lung, stomach, colon, and rectum, while broccoli consumption decreases risk of all cancers. A 1999 review by Giovannucci of studies relating Lycopene (a compound most commonly found in tomatoes) and cancer risk, reported that “The evidence for a benefit was strongest for cancers of the prostate, lung, and stomach. Data were also suggestive of a benefit for cancers of the pancreas, colon and rectum, oesophagus, oral cavity, breast, and cervix.”

Numerous epidemiological studies refer to a study carried out in 1976 amongst a large population of Seventh-Day Adventists who observe a strict vegan diet. One such study carried out by Jacobsen et al., 98, concluded that consumption of soya milk on a daily basis could reduce risk of prostate cancer by up to 70%, and recommended that further research be carried out on the influence of soy products on prostate cancer.

What can we take from all this research? The answer is plain.
Regardless of how healthy our lifestyles are otherwise, not paying attention to what we eat could kill us.

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BBQ. Master Wayne van Dee veer Ribs

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Char Siu BBQ Sauce
1/3 cup honey
1/3 cup soy sauce
1/4 cup oyster sauce
1/4 cup rice wine or sake
2 tablespoons Asian dark sesame oil
2 tablespoons hoisin sauce
1 teaspoon five-spice powder
1 teaspoon freshly ground white pepper
Step 1: Place the ingredients in a saucepan. Gently simmer until richly flavored, 5 minutes, then let cool to room temperature. Yield: Makes 1 1/2 cups
Step 2: Baste meats every 35 – 45 minutes after smoking meat at 225 F for 2 hours till reaches proper temperature.
Char Siu Marinade
• 2 Pork tenderloins or 2 Racks of Pork Ribs
• 1/2 cup soy sauce
• 1/3 cup honey
• 1/3 cup ketchup
• 1/3 cup brown sugar
• 1/4 cup Chinese rice wine
• 2 tablespoons hoisin sauce
• 2 tablespoons red food coloring
• 1 teaspoon Chinese five-spice powder (optional)

Step One: Take meat and trim any heavy fatty portions, make sure to remove the membrane from the back of the ribs. If using boneless loin trim off any silver skin so marinade can penetrate the meat.
Step Two: Place meat in Non-conductive dish or gallon plastic bags add the marinade to the meat and place in fridge 6 – 24 hours.
Step Three: Prep Grill or Smoker to manufactures specifications. If using a grill, we will be using the indirect method. Place coals on one side place wood chips in a foil pack and poke a few holes to allow smoke to come out. I like to use fruit wood like apple or cherry both work equally well. Place the meat on the opposite side we are looking for a temperature of 225 F or 107 C, we are going low and slow no hurrying on this one. We are looking for an internal temp of 165 F or 73 C on the meat. If doing ribs, we will use a little different method called the 2-2-1 method this is 2 hours of smoke wrap ribs in foil add ½ a cup apple juice to each rib and coat with a nice thin layer of the sauce for 2 hours. Open and drain juices out in a pan add the rest of the sauce to pan and whisk till combined this is your glaze to use for the last hour and makes a nice dipping sauce as well. If using loin, we will use the sauce as the glaze as well except we will coat meat in a thin layer after cooking for a hour then every 35-45 minutes after keep layering and building that nice mahogany color. Remember that the loin needs pulled at 160F or 70C and covered and let to rest before slicing. Carry over heat when covered with foil should rise about 5 degrees.
Make a nice white rice to serve with asparagus or fresh green beans.

Guest piece by Jenny

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This piece is a bit different. I will be talking about the other side of the gangster lifestyle. The side of living with a gangster.
Being the other half of a gangster can be challenging. A lot of time you dont get to see your other half and their time if very valueable so you have to grab every moment you have and use it wisely.
The plus side it’s a great learning experience and I am learning new things everyday. Now a days I can’t go anywhere without spotting little things on the side of the road that can be picked to use in food, it’s drilled in my brain at this point. It can be frustrating at times though because I would have no idea what to do with them 😛
Although it’s hard to spend quality time alone, being even a somewhat accosiated with the gangster s is actually very fun. Getting up early is a pet peeve of mine but discovered going to the beach early on a winter morning picking clams is not only relaxing but calming and you feel better just getting the fresh air. Being able to see the demos they do is inspiring. You learn many simple tricks to make simple dishes look like you spent days making them 🙂 also having the receipts on the blog is handy to see and also having one at home is handy to experiment with the food I tried to make (he hadn’t got sick yet so I’m getting somewhere with the cooking i guess).
I couldn’t cook a thing 4 years ago. Not a thing. I burnt a boiled egg ( I still don’t know how) and made myself sick making a sandwich (it’s a skill I swear) I was a mess when it came to cooking, I swore that I wasnt made to cook. Since meeting a gangster things changed..I will make a full roast no question asked. He can now come home to cooked meal with out fear or any poising. Spices were scary, very scary I wouldn’t go near them. Now if I don’t have spices in my food I feel it’s not complete. Also making sauces from scratch adding in foraged goods is something I’m trying ( if 20 year old saw me now she be so proud). It’s actually a great feeling. My palette is being explored from all the explosive flavours, flavours in which I didn’t know exsisted. You can pick from the side of the road, found at the coast and generally around the place we just walk past to add in to dishes to make them perfect.
But the best thing about living with a gangster is seeing the progress and watching them learn as they progress forward. The joy when they discover new things to work into dishes, new plants just outside the door they can use and the general excitement within their careers , it’s inspiring …but also living with a gangster I get to try all the yummy treats and test new food, who doesn’t want that 😛
Thank you gangsters for showing me anyone can cook if you put your mind to it.

Chef matt on been a chef

Hello one and all,

 

My name is Chef Matthew Schutten-Burt. I’m a Canadian chef with 15 years of experience on the line. I’ve worked across the country as well as in the UK. I work, currently, at http://www.garlicsoflondon.com under Head Chef Carla Cooper, where I function as the morning chef. My team and I are responsible for bread shift, desserts, set up, lunch service and all the butchering. Formerly, I was the sous-chef at http://www.dinkels.ca and the attached restaurant, Paulo’s Italian Trattoria.

I was asked to write a piece by Chef Noel on any topic I so chose and I think I’ve come up with an important one for both male and female chefs.

First things first, it’s important to note that I’m not…politically correct. I don’t go out of my way to offend anyone, surely, but I also feel the need to be direct in what I’m going to say because it is of, I believe, utmost importance.

We aren’t going to talk about food today. Nor are we talking about any new technique, method, recipe or ingredient, we aren’t even going to address the Business itself, but rather our actions within it.

Today, now more than ever, our actions are under constant scrutiny. We have health inspectors, TripAdvisor, Yelp and a whole host of food blogs, YouTubers and Twitter users who have the ability to let others know what they think about our food in an instant.

This is on top of the already demanding specifications it takes to make it into the likes of the AA Food Guide, or even appear on Michelin’s radar, and I’d argue the blogger and twitter-er can do more damage to a restaurant than either “major” group can. That is to say, there are plenty of successful restaurants that make their owners millions without a rep ever setting foot in the dining room.

Thus, we come nicely to my topic: professionalism.

What do I mean by this word? Simply this; how we interact with each-other, FOH and our punters, whether behind closed doors or in full view of our dining rooms.

Never before have we been watched so carefully. Our profession, due to the likes of Chef Ramsay and Chef Oliver among others, has been shot to the forefront of pop culture. Yet never more have we been thought of less for our craft and more for the shenanigans that have been brought to light and have, for all intents and purposes, become tropes and memes of culinary culture.

It is expected of us to shout, to scream and the swear. We are expected to belittle our co-workers, to behave as children and over-dramatic actors. It can be argued, and, in fact I AM arguing, that chefs such as Gordon Ramsay have done more harm than good for our trade over the last few years.

Certainly he is innovative, and his food is par excellence, but one cannot, cannot, cannot look away from the antics and showmanship that is demonstrated on American television through Kitchen Nightmares and Hell’s Kitchen.

Is the face that American telly puts on for us our true persona as culinary wolves? No. It is, however, what sells in America. One needs only look as far as what British television shows to know that this isn’t the case. The UK version of Kitchen Nightmares is far different. Being Canadian, I’m blessed to get access to both.

But sadly, it’s usually the vocal, crass and often loud minority that draws attention to itself. The squeaky wheel gets the grease and all that.

But in this case I think it is imperative to be the solution ourselves, rather than just stand by and let the customer and the media portray us how they want. We are professionals and, if you’re reading Noel’s blog, I have to assume you’ve CHOSEN this career path, not been forced into it.

Your pride should genuinely be hurt by the low, base and unexceptional level that is not only expected of us, but (in some cases) looked for.

There is, however, a remedy for this.

We need to treat ourselves, firstly, with respect. It is impossible to function and work in a high-stress, fast-paced, often hot and exhausting environment unless you look yourself in the mirror every day and say “I can do this. I’ve got this. I’m well trained. My crew has my back, and I’ve trained them well. We know our roles, we know our staff, we know our menu.” Only when you can do this can you move on to step two.

Secondly, treat your under-chefs with respect. Don’t talk down to them. Talk WITH them. Certainly, when the heat is on, expect a “Yes, Chef!” from them, but don’t call them out in front of the rest of the crew. That kind of action gets passed around to those who weren’t there as the night’s juicy gossip. Talk to them after service. Work on the issue together, and never in hearing range of others. Most of us have offices. We should make use of them.

Please note there is a caveat here. Some people just don’t fit, and the level of insubordination can get insane. If you must remove somebody from line for the sake of customers and staff, do so. Firmly, calmly. Let them make the noise. Retain your composure.

Thirdly, be kind to your servers and, through them, the customer.

FOH is the link you have to the customer. Without them you can’t get food out of the pass, let alone get orders in to the kitchen. They tell you about allergies, dietary restrictions and modifications. Granted, most of these are irritating, but if the customer comes back, or stays longer buying booze and dessert, who gives a damn? We exist to make money. We have a skill we are passionate about that people are willing to pay for. Respect the servers and the (reasonable requests) of your customers and they’ll be singing your praises.

This may all seem like common sense, but I think it bears repeating. Especially in light of how trainee chefs are coming out of catering college these days. I don’t know the current situation in Europe or in the UK, but here? It’s a disaster.

These…petulant and petty youngsters are coming out like puffed-up little school children, not realizing that finishing catering college is only the first rung on a very, VERY long ladder.

If you’re a trainee chef and reading this, check your ego. I’m not concerned with how good you think you are, there’s always someone else who’s better, and if there isn’t? Quit now. You’ve peaked. It is important to look at every shift, every service, every day as an opportunity to improve upon your skills and learn some new ones. Only then will you begin to be thought of as worth your salt by your superiors.

Bottom line, chefs? Be excellent to each other and your staff. We have little home life, leave our spouses and children alone when we wish we didn’t. We miss birthdays, anniversaries, valentines, new years and football games. We miss Christmas Pantos. We miss baptisms. We miss graduations and vacations.

And sometimes…well, this causes our home lives to collapse. When this happens, we only have each other. Our families extend beyond our homes. You know this. And you know we forgive the worst offences from each other because of it. But, let’s not abuse it, shall we? Each one of us may come to a day where our restaurant family is all we have for that moment.

Until next time, chefs,

 

Take care,

 

Chef Matthew Schutten-Burt

Garlic’s of London

London, Ontario

Canada

 

An Italian breakfast

Traditional Italian Easter Breakfast

 

In Italy, a famous saying goes: “Christmas with your family, Easter with whoever you wish.”

                          

This proverb seems to invite a real exodus from their family environment, but perhaps in Rome and surroundings, is not quite so, because to the Romans, Easter is an important holiday that you get to celebrate since the early morning, with a rich Easter breakfast.

The traditional Roman Easter breakfast is, generally, preparing the table with dishes symbolic of the Christian religion, because this moment (Easter) celebrates the end of fasting and the return to life.

 

The table is completely set because this “breakfast” is very important in the regional tradition, almost more than the classic Easter lunch.

 

 

On the table will be present both sweet dishes and savory dishes.

We will find the typical Pizza battuta, served with chocolate Easter eggs, Pasqualina cake, to match with the Corallina (a type of salami), but definitely not miss the Colomba, the famous Easter cake.

 

 

In addition, the Roman tradition wants that on the table there are some cooked dishes including, for example, the Coratella with artichokes, Frittata with artichokes and boiled eggs to enjoy with cheese pizza.

 

 

Surely you can’t say it’s a light breakfast but the traditions are traditions and as such, we must try to pass them on from generation to generation because it’s nice to continue what our ancestors began. Happy Easter everyone!

P.s.: Don’t forget this breakfast has to be served with a generous glass of wine… maybe two!!

 

Tralee 14/04/2017

Massimiliano Bagaglini

 

guest blog industry life

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Hello one and all,

 

My name is Chef Matthew Schutten-Burt. I’m a Canadian chef with 15 years of experience on the line. I’ve worked across the country as well as in the UK. I work, currently, at http://www.garlicsoflondon.com under Head Chef Carla Cooper, where I function as the morning chef. My team and I are responsible for bread shift, desserts, set up, lunch service and all the butchering. Formerly, I was the sous-chef at http://www.dinkels.ca and the attached restaurant, Paulo’s Italian Trattoria.

I was asked to write a piece by Chef Noel on any topic I so chose and I think I’ve come up with an important one for both male and female chefs.

First things first, it’s important to note that I’m not…politically correct. I don’t go out of my way to offend anyone, surely, but I also feel the need to be direct in what I’m going to say because it is of, I believe, utmost importance.

We aren’t going to talk about food today. Nor are we talking about any new technique, method, recipe or ingredient, we aren’t even going to address the Business itself, but rather our actions within it.

Today, now more than ever, our actions are under constant scrutiny. We have health inspectors, TripAdvisor, Yelp and a whole host of food blogs, YouTubers and Twitter users who have the ability to let others know what they think about our food in an instant.

This is on top of the already demanding specifications it takes to make it into the likes of the AA Food Guide, or even appear on Michelin’s radar, and I’d argue the blogger and twitter-er can do more damage to a restaurant than either “major” group can. That is to say, there are plenty of successful restaurants that make their owners millions without a rep ever setting foot in the dining room.

Thus, we come nicely to my topic: professionalism.

What do I mean by this word? Simply this; how we interact with each-other, FOH and our punters, whether behind closed doors or in full view of our dining rooms.

Never before have we been watched so carefully. Our profession, due to the likes of Chef Ramsay and Chef Oliver among others, has been shot to the forefront of pop culture. Yet never more have we been thought of less for our craft and more for the shenanigans that have been brought to light and have, for all intents and purposes, become tropes and memes of culinary culture.

It is expected of us to shout, to scream and the swear. We are expected to belittle our co-workers, to behave as children and over-dramatic actors. It can be argued, and, in fact I AM

arguing, that chefs such as Gordon Ramsay have done more harm than good for our trade over the last few years.

Certainly he is innovative, and his food is par excellence, but one cannot, cannot, cannot look away from the antics and showmanship that is demonstrated on American television through Kitchen Nightmares and Hell’s Kitchen.

Is the face that American telly puts on for us our true persona as culinary wolves? No. It is, however, what sells in America. One needs only look as far as what British television shows to know that this isn’t the case. The UK version of Kitchen Nightmares is far different. Being Canadian, I’m blessed to get access to both.

But sadly, it’s usually the vocal, crass and often loud minority that draws attention to itself. The squeaky wheel gets the grease and all that.

But in this case I think it is imperative to be the solution ourselves, rather than just stand by and let the customer and the media portray us how they want. We are professionals and, if you’re reading Noel’s blog, I have to assume you’ve CHOSEN this career path, not been forced into it.

Your pride should genuinely be hurt by the low, base and unexceptional level that is not only expected of us, but (in some cases) looked for.

There is, however, a remedy for this.

We need to treat ourselves, firstly, with respect. It is impossible to function and work in a high-stress, fast-paced, often hot and exhausting environment unless you look yourself in the mirror every day and say “I can do this. I’ve got this. I’m well trained. My crew has my back, and I’ve trained them well. We know our roles, we know our staff, we know our menu.” Only when you can do this can you move on to step two.

Secondly, treat your under-chefs with respect. Don’t talk down to them. Talk WITH them. Certainly, when the heat is on, expect a “Yes, Chef!” from them, but don’t call them out in front of the rest of the crew. That kind of action gets passed around to those who weren’t there as the night’s juicy gossip. Talk to them after service. Work on the issue together, and never in hearing range of others. Most of us have offices. We should make use of them.

Please note there is a caveat here. Some people just don’t fit, and the level of insubordination can get insane. If you must remove somebody from line for the sake of customers and staff, do so. Firmly, calmly. Let them make the noise. Retain your composure.

Thirdly, be kind to your servers and, through them, the customer.

FOH is the link you have to the customer. Without them you can’t get food out of the pass, let alone get orders in to the kitchen. They tell you about allergies, dietary restrictions and modifications. Granted, most of these are irritating, but if the customer comes back, or stays longer buying booze and dessert, who gives a damn? We exist to make money. We have a skill

we are passionate about that people are willing to pay for. Respect the servers and the (reasonable requests) of your customers and they’ll be singing your praises.

This may all seem like common sense, but I think it bears repeating. Especially in light of how trainee chefs are coming out of catering college these days. I don’t know the current situation in Europe or in the UK, but here? It’s a disaster.

These…petulant and petty youngsters are coming out like puffed-up little school children, not realizing that finishing catering college is only the first rung on a very, VERY long ladder.

If you’re a trainee chef and reading this, check your ego. I’m not concerned with how good you think you are, there’s always someone else who’s better, and if there isn’t? Quit now. You’ve peaked. It is important to look at every shift, every service, every day as an opportunity to improve upon your skills and learn some new ones. Only then will you begin to be thought of as worth your salt by your superiors.

Bottom line, chefs? Be excellent to each other and your staff. We have little home life, leave our spouses and children alone when we wish we didn’t. We miss birthdays, anniversaries, valentines, new years and football games. We miss Christmas Pantos. We miss baptisms. We miss graduations and vacations.

And sometimes…well, this causes our home lives to collapse. When this happens, we only have each other. Our families extend beyond our homes. You know this. And you know we forgive the worst offences from each other because of it. But, let’s not abuse it, shall we? Each one of us may come to a day where our restaurant family is all we have for that moment.

Until next time, chefs,

 

Take care,

 

Chef Matthew Schutten-Burt

Garlic’s of London

London, Ontario

Canada

follow matthew on twitter @matthewjburt

History of coffee by pawel

front of house maestro Pawel given us a coffee lesson

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*** History of coffee

The Coffee Bearer by John Frederick Lewis (1857).
(Ottoman quarters in Cairo, Egypt)

The history of coffee goes at least as far back as the 10th century, with a number of reports and legends surrounding its first use. The native (undomesticated) origin of coffee is thought to have been Ethiopia. The earliest substantiated evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree is from the 15th century, in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen.[1] By the 16th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia, Turkey, Horn of Africa, and northern Africa. Coffee then spread to the Balkans, Italy and to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia and then to America.[2]

Etymology

The word “coffee” entered the English language in 1582 via the Dutch koffie,[3] borrowed from the Turkish kahve, in turn borrowed from the Arabic qahwah ( قهوة).[4]

The word qahwah originally referred to a type of wine, whose etymology is given by Arab lexicographers as deriving from the verb qahā (قها, “to lack hunger”) in reference to the drink’s reputation as an appetite suppressant.[4][5] The word qahwah is sometimes alternatively traced to the Arabic quwwa (“power, energy”), or to Kaffa, a medieval kingdom in Ethiopia whence the plant was exported to Arabia.[4] These etymologies for qahwah have all been disputed, however. The name qahwah is not used for the berry or plant (the products of the region), which are known in Arabic as bunn and in Oromo as būn. Semitic had a root qhh “dark color”, which became a natural designation for the beverage. According to this analysis, the feminine form qahwah (also meaning “dark in color, dull(ing), dry, sour”) was likely chosen to parallel the feminine khamr (خمر, “wine”), and originally meant “the dark one”.[6]

First use

The Ethiopian ancestors of today’s Oromo ethnic group were the first to have recognized the energizing effect of the native coffee plant.[1] Studies of genetic diversity have been performed on Coffea arabica varieties, which were found to be of low diversity but with retention of some residual heterozygosity from ancestral materials, and closely related diploid species Coffea canephora and C. liberica;[7] however, no direct evidence has ever been found indicating where in Africa coffee grew or who among the natives might have used it as a stimulant or known about it there earlier than the seventeenth century.[1] The original domesticated coffee plant is said to have been from Harar, and the native population is thought to be derived from Ethiopia with distinct nearby populations in Sudan and Kenya.[8][9]

Coffee was primarily consumed in the Islamic world where it originated and was directly related to religious practices.[10]

There are several legendary accounts of the origin of the drink itself. One account involves the Yemenite Sufi mystic Ghothul Akbar Nooruddin Abu al-Hasan al-Shadhili.[11] When traveling in Ethiopia, the legend goes, he observed birds of unusual vitality, and, upon trying the berries that the birds had been eating, experienced the same vitality.

Other accounts attribute the discovery of coffee to Sheik Abou’l Hasan Schadheli’s disciple, Omar. According to the ancient chronicle (preserved in the Abd-Al-Kadir manuscript), Omar, who was known for his ability to cure the sick through prayer, was once exiled from Mocha to a desert cave near Ousab. Starving, Omar chewed berries from nearby shrubbery, but found them to be bitter. He tried roasting the beans to improve the flavor, but they became hard. He then tried boiling them to soften the bean, which resulted in a fragrant brown liquid. Upon drinking the liquid Omar was revitalized and sustained for days. As stories of this “miracle drug” reached Mocha, Omar was asked to return and was made a saint.[12]

Another probably fanciful[1] account involves a 9th-century Ethiopian goat-herder, Kaldi, who, noticing the energizing effects when his flock nibbled on the bright red berries of a certain bush, chewed on the fruit himself. His exhilaration prompted him to bring the berries to a monk in a nearby monastery. But the monk disapproved of their use and threw them into the fire, from which an enticing aroma billowed, causing other monks to come and investigate. The roasted beans were quickly raked from the embers, ground up, and dissolved in hot water, yielding the world’s first cup of coffee. Since this story is not known to have appeared in writing before 1671, 800 years after it was supposed to have taken place, it is highly likely to be apocryphal.[1]

History

Syrian Bedouin from a beehive village in Aleppo, Syria, sipping the traditional murra (bitter) coffee, 1930

Palestinian women grinding coffee, 1905
The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the 15th century, in Yemen’s Sufi monasteries.[1]

Coffee beans were first exported from Ethiopia to Yemen. Yemeni traders brought coffee back to their homeland and began to cultivate the bean.[13] The word qahwa originally meant wine, and Sufis in Yemen used the beverage as an aid to concentration and as a kind of spiritual intoxication when they chanted the name of God.[14] Sufis used it to keep themselves alert during their nighttime devotions. A translation of Al-Jaziri’s manuscript[15] traces the spread of coffee from Arabia Felix (the present day Yemen) northward to Mecca and Medina, and then to the larger cities of Cairo, Damascus, Baghdad, and Constantinople. By 1414, the beverage was known in Mecca, and in the early 1500s was spreading to the Mameluke Sultanate of Egypt and North Africa from the Yemeni port of Mocha.[8][14] Associated with Sufism, a myriad of coffee houses grew up in Cairo (Egypt) around the religious University of the Azhar. These coffee houses also opened in Syria, especially in the cosmopolitan city of Aleppo,[14] and then in Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire, in 1554.[14] In 1511, it was forbidden for its stimulating effect by conservative, orthodox imams at a theological court in Mecca.[16] However, these bans were to be overturned in 1524 by an order of the Ottoman Turkish Sultan Suleiman I, with Grand Mufti Mehmet Ebussuud el-İmadi issuing a fatwa allowing the consumption of coffee.[17] In Cairo, Egypt, a similar ban was instituted in 1532, and the coffeehouses and warehouses containing coffee beans were sacked.[18] During the 16th century, it had already reached the rest of the Middle East, the Safavid Empire and the Ottoman Empire. From the Middle East, coffee drinking spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe, and coffee plants were transported by the Dutch to the East Indies and to the Americas.[2]

Similarly, coffee was banned by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church some time before the 18th century.[19] However, in the second half of the 19th century, Ethiopian attitudes softened towards coffee drinking, and its consumption spread rapidly between 1880 and 1886; according to Richard Pankhurst, “this was largely due to Emperor Menilek, who himself drank it, and to Abuna Matewos who did much to dispel the belief of the clergy that it was a Muslim drink.”[20]

The earliest mention of coffee noted by the literary coffee merchant Philippe Sylvestre Dufour[21] is a reference to bunchum in the works of the 10th century CE Persian physician Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, known as Rhazes in the West,[22] but more definite information on the preparation of a beverage from the roasted coffee berries dates from several centuries later. One of the most important of the early writers on coffee was Abd al-Qadir al-Jaziri, who in 1587 compiled a work tracing the history and legal controversies of coffee entitled Umdat al safwa fi hill al-qahwa عمدة الصفوة في حل القهوة.[16][23] He reported that one Sheikh, Jamal-al-Din al-Dhabhani (d. 1470), mufti of Aden, was the first to adopt the use of coffee (circa 1454).

He found that among its properties was that it drove away fatigue and lethargy, and brought to the body a certain sprightliness and vigour.[1]

Europe

Dutch engraving of Mocha in 1692
Coffee was noted in Aleppo by the German physician botanist Leonhard Rauwolf, the first European to mention it, as chaube, in 1573; Rauwolf was closely followed by descriptions from other European travellers.[24]

The vibrant trade between the Republic of Venice and the Muslims in North Africa, Egypt, and the East brought a large variety of African goods, including coffee, to this leading European port. Venetian merchants introduced coffee-drinking to the wealthy in Venice, charging them heavily for the beverage. In this way, coffee was introduced to Europe. The first European coffee house apart from those in the Ottoman Empire was opened in Venice in 1645.[2]

Austria
The first coffeehouse in Austria opened in Vienna in 1683 after the Battle of Vienna, by using supplies from the spoils obtained after defeating the Turks. The officer who received the coffee beans, Jerzy Franciszek Kulczycki, a Polish military officer of Ukrainian origin, opened the coffee house and helped popularize the custom of adding sugar and milk to the coffee. Melange is the typical Viennese coffee, which comes mixed with hot foamed milk and a glass of water.

England

1652 advertisement for the UK’s first coffeehouse, St. Michael’s Alley
According to Leonhard Rauwolf’s 1583 account, coffee became available in England no later than the 16th century, largely through the efforts of the British East India Company and the Dutch East India Company. The first coffeehouse in England was opened in St. Michael’s Alley in Cornhill, London. The proprietor was Pasqua Rosée, the servant of Daniel Edwards, a trader in Turkish goods. Edwards imported the coffee and assisted Rosée in setting up the establishment. Oxford’s Queen’s Lane Coffee House, established in 1654, is still in existence today. By 1675, there were more than 3,000 coffeehouses throughout England, but there were many disruptions in the progressive movement of coffeehouses between the 1660s and 1670s.[25] During the enlightenment, these early English coffee houses became gathering places used for deep religious and political discussions among the populace. This practice became so common, and potentially subversive, that Charles II made an attempt to crush coffee houses in 1675.[26][27][28][29]

The banning of women from coffeehouses was not universal, for example, women frequented them in Germany, but it appears to have been commonplace elsewhere in Europe, including in England.[30]

Many in this period believed coffee to have medicinal properties. A 1661 tract entitled “A character of coffee and coffee-houses”, written by one “M.P.”, lists some of these perceived benefits:

‘Tis extolled for drying up the Crudities of the Stomack, and for expelling Fumes out of the Head. Excellent Berry! which can cleanse the English-man’s Stomak of Flegm, and expel Giddinesse out of his Head.

This new commodity proved controversial among some subjects, however. For instance, the anonymous 1674 “Women’s Petition Against Coffee” declared:

the Excessive Use of that Newfangled, Abominable, Heathenish Liquor called COFFEE …has…Eunucht our Husbands, and Crippled our more kind Gallants, that they are become as Impotent, as Age.[31]

France
Antoine Galland (1646–1715) in his aforementioned translation described the Muslim association with coffee, tea and chocolate: “We are indebted to these great [Arab] physicians for introducing coffee to the modern world through their writings, as well as sugar, tea, and chocolate.” Galland reported that he was informed by Mr. de la Croix, the interpreter of King Louis XIV of France, that coffee was brought to Paris by a certain Mr. Thevenot, who had travelled through the East. On his return to that city in 1657, Thevenot gave some of the beans to his friends, one of whom was de la Croix.

In 1669, Soleiman Agha, Ambassador from Sultan Mehmed IV, arrived in Paris with his entourage bringing with him a large quantity of coffee beans. Not only did they provide their French and European guests with coffee to drink, but they also donated some beans to the royal court. Between July 1669 and May 1670, the Ambassador managed to firmly establish the custom of drinking coffee among Parisians.

Germany
In Germany, coffeehouses were first established in North Sea ports, including Bremen (1673) and Hamburg (1677). Initially, this new beverage was written in the English form coffee, but during the 1700s the Germans gradually adopted the French word café, then slowly changed to the word Kaffee, where it stands now. In the 18th century the popularity of coffee gradually spread around the German lands, and was taken up by the ruling classes. Coffee was served at the court of the Great Elector, Frederick William of Brandenburg, as early as 1675, but the first public coffee house in his capital, Berlin, opened only in 1721.

Café Zimmermann, Leipzig (engraving by Johann Georg Schreiber, 1732)
Composer Johann Sebastian Bach, who was cantor of St. Thomas Church, Leipzig, in 1723–50, conducted a musical ensemble at Café Zimmermann in that Saxon city. Sometime in 1732–35 he composed the secular “Coffee Cantata” Schweigt stille, plaudert nicht (BWV 211), in which a young woman, Lieschen, pleads with her disapproving father to accept her devotion to drinking coffee, then a newfangled fashion. The libretto includes such lines as:

Ei! wie schmeckt der Coffee süße,
Lieblicher als tausend Küsse,
Milder als Muskatenwein.
Coffee, Coffee muss ich haben,
Und wenn jemand mich will laben,
Ach, so schenkt mir Coffee ein!

(Oh! How sweet coffee does taste,
Better than a thousand kisses,
Milder than muscat wine.
Coffee, coffee, I’ve got to have it,
And if someone wants to perk me up, *
Oh, just give me a cup of coffee!)

Netherlands
Further information: Dutch East India Company
The race among Europeans to obtain live coffee trees or beans was eventually won by the Dutch in 1616. Pieter van den Broecke, a Dutch merchant, obtained some of the closely guarded coffee bushes from Mocha, Yemen, in 1616. He took them back to Amsterdam and found a home for them in the Botanical gardens, where they began to thrive. This apparently minor event received little publicity, but was to have a major impact on the history of coffee.

The beans that van der Broecke acquired from Mocha forty years earlier adjusted well to conditions in the greenhouses at the Amsterdam Botanical Garden and produced numerous healthy Coffea arabica bushes. In 1658 the Dutch first used them to begin coffee cultivation in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and later in southern India. They abandoned these cultivations to focus on their Javanese plantations in order to avoid lowering the price by oversupply.[citation needed]

Within a few years, the Dutch colonies (Java in Asia, Suriname in the Americas) had become the main suppliers of coffee to Europe.

Poland
Coffee reached the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 17th century, primarily through merchants trading with the Ottomans.[32] First coffee shops opened a century later.[33] Usage of coffee has grown since, though it was a luxury commodity during the communist era of the Polish People’s Republic. Consumption of coffee has grown since the transformation of Poland into a democratic, capitalistic country in 1989, through it still remains lower per capita than in most West European countries.[34]

Americas

Gabriel de Clieu brought coffee seedlings to Martinique in the Caribbean circa 1720. Those sprouts flourished and 50 years later there were 18,680 coffee trees in Martinique enabling the spread of coffee cultivation to Saint-Domingue (Haiti), Mexico and other islands of the Caribbean. The French territory of Saint-Domingue, saw coffee cultivated from 1734, and by 1788 it supplied half the world’s coffee. Coffee had a major influence on the geography of Latin America.[35] The French colonial plantations relied heavily on African slave laborers. However, the dreadful conditions that the slaves worked in on coffee plantations were a factor in the soon-to-follow Haitian Revolution. The coffee industry never fully recovered there.[36]

Coffee also found its way to the Isle of Bourbon, now known as Réunion, in the Indian Ocean. The plant produced smaller beans and was deemed a different variety of arabica known as var. Bourbon. The Santos coffee of Brazil and the Oaxaca coffee of Mexico are the progeny of that Bourbon tree. Circa 1727, the King of Portugal sent Francisco de Melo Palheta to French Guiana to obtain coffee seeds to become a part of the coffee market. Francisco initially had difficulty obtaining these seeds, but he captivated the French Governor’s wife and she sent him enough seeds and shoots to commence the coffee industry of Brazil. In 1893, the coffee from Brazil was introduced into Kenya and Tanzania (Tanganyika), not far from its place of origin in Ethiopia, 600 years prior, ending its transcontinental journey.[37]

Meanwhile, coffee had been introduced to Brazil in 1727, although its cultivation did not gather momentum until independence in 1822.[38] After this time, massive tracts of rainforest were cleared first from the vicinity of Rio and later São Paulo for coffee plantations.[39]

After the Boston Tea Party of 1773, large numbers of Americans switched to drinking coffee during the American Revolution because drinking tea had become unpatriotic.[40]

Cultivation was taken up by many countries in the latter half of the 19th century, and almost all involved the large-scale displacement and exploitation of the indigenous Indian people. Harsh conditions led to many uprisings, coups and bloody suppression of peasants.[41] The notable exception was Costa Rica, where lack of ready labor prevented the formation of large farms. Smaller farms and more egalitarian conditions ameliorated unrest over the 19th and 20th centuries.[42]

Brazil became the largest producer of coffee in the world by 1852 and it held that status ever since. It dominated world production, exporting more coffee than the rest of the world combined, from 1850 to 1950. The period since 1950 saw the widening of the playing field due to the emergence of several other major producers, most notably Colombia, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, and, most recently, Vietnam, which overtook Colombia and became the second-largest producer in 1999 and reached 15% market share by 2011.[43]

Asia

India

Monsooned Malabar arabica, compared with green Yirgachefe beans from Ethiopia
The first record of coffee growing in India is following the introduction of coffee beans from Yemen by Baba Budan to the hills of Chikmagalur in 1670.[44] Since then coffee plantations have become established in the region, extending south to Kodagu.

Coffee production in India is dominated in the hill tracts of South Indian states, with the state of Karnataka accounting 53% followed by Kerala 28% and Tamil Nadu 11% of production of 8,200 tonnes. Indian coffee is said to be the finest coffee grown in the shade rather than direct sunlight anywhere in the world.[45] There are approximately 250,000 coffee growers in India; 98% of them are small growers.[46] As of 2009, the production of coffee in India was only 4.5% of the total production in the world. Almost 80% of the country’s coffee production is exported.[47] Of that which is exported, 70% is bound for Germany, Russian federation, Spain, Belgium, Slovenia, United States, Japan, Greece, Netherlands and France, and Italy accounts for 29% of the exports. Most of the export is shipped through the Suez Canal.[45]

Coffee is grown in three regions of India with Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu forming the traditional coffee growing region of South India, followed by the new areas developed in the non-traditional areas of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa in the eastern coast of the country and with a third region comprising the states of Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tripura, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh of Northeastern India, popularly known as “Seven Sister States of India”.[48]

Indian coffee, grown mostly in southern India under monsoon rainfall conditions, is also termed as “Indian monsooned coffee”. Its flavour is defined as: “The best Indian coffee reaches the flavour characteristics of Pacific coffees, but at its worst it is simply bland and uninspiring”.[49] The two well known species of coffee grown are the Arabica and Robusta. The first variety that was introduced in the Baba Budan Giri hill ranges of Karnataka in the 17th century[50] was marketed over the years under the brand names of Kent and S.795.

Chikmagalur Coffee is the cornerstone of Chikmagalur’s economy. Chikmagalur is the birthplace of coffee in India, where the seed was first sown about 350 years ago. Coffee Board is the department located in Chikmagalur town that oversees the production and marketing of coffee cultivated in the district. Coffee is cultivated in Chikmagalur district in an area of around 85,465 hectares with Arabica being the dominant variety grown in upper hills and Robusta being the major variety in the low level hills. There are around 15000 coffee growers in this district with 96% of them being small growers with holdings of less than or equal to 4 hectares. The average production is 55,000 MT: 35,000 MT of Arabica and 20,000 MT of Robusta. The average productivity per hectare is 810 kg for Arabica and 1110 kg of Robusta, which are higher than the national average. Arabica is a species of coffee that is also known as the “coffee shrub of Arabia”, “mountain coffee” or “arabica coffee”. Coffea arabica is believed to be the first species of coffee to be cultivated, being grown in southwest Arabia for well over 1,000 years. It is considered to produce better coffee than the other major commercially grown coffee species, Coffea canephora (robusta). Arabica contains less caffeine than any other commercially cultivated species of coffee. Robusta is a species of coffee which has its origins in western Africa. It is grown mostly in Africa and Brazil, where it is often called Conillon. It is also grown in Southeast Asia where French colonists introduced it in the late 19th century. In recent years Vietnam, which only produces robusta, has surpassed Brazil, India, and Indonesia to become the world’s single largest exporter. Approximately one third of the coffee produced in the world is robusta.

Japan
Coffee was introduced to Japan by the Dutch in the 17th century, but remained a curiosity until the lifting of trade restrictions in 1858. The first European-style coffeehouse opened in Tokyo in 1888, and closed four years later.[51] By the early 1930s there were over 30,000 coffeehouses across the country; availability in the wartime and immediate postwar period dropped to nearly zero, then rapidly increased as import barriers were removed. The introduction of freeze-dried instant coffee, canned coffee, and franchises such as Starbucks and Doutor Coffee in the late 20th century continued this trend, to the point that Japan is now one of the leading per capita coffee consumers in the world.[52]

South Korea
Coffee’s first notable Korean enthusiasts were 19th century emperors Sunjong and Gojong, who preferred to consume it after western-style banquets.[53] By the 1980s instant coffee and canned coffee had become fairly popular, with a more minor tradition of independently owned coffeehouses in larger cities; toward the end of the century the growth of franchises such as Caffe Bene and Starbucks brought about a greater demand for European-style coffee.[54]

Indonesia
Coffee was first introduced by the Dutch during colonization. Today Indonesia is one of the largest coffee producers in the world, mainly for export. However coffee is enjoyed in various ways around the archipelago like traditional “Kopi Ende” which is with ginger to fancy new ways in Jakartas many coffee shops like Anomali.

Production

The first step in Europeans’ wresting the means of production was effected by Nicolaes Witsen, the enterprising burgomaster of Amsterdam and member of the governing board of the Dutch East India Company who urged Joan van Hoorn, the Dutch governor at Batavia that some coffee plants be obtained at the export port of Mocha in Yemen, the source of Europe’s supply, and established in the Dutch East Indies;[55] the project of raising many plants from the seeds of the first shipment met with such success that the Dutch East India Company was able to supply Europe’s demand with “Java coffee” by 1719.[56] Encouraged by their success, they soon had coffee plantations in Ceylon, Sumatra and other Sunda islands.[57] Coffee trees were soon grown under glass at the Hortus Botanicus of Leiden, whence slips were generously extended to other botanical gardens. Dutch representatives at the negotiations that led to the Treaty of Utrecht presented their French counterparts with a coffee plant, which was grown on at the Jardin du Roi, predecessor of the Jardin des Plantes, in Paris.

The introduction of coffee to the Americas was effected by Captain Gabriel des Clieux, who obtained cuttings from the reluctant botanist Antoine de Jussieu, who was loath to disfigure the king’s coffee tree.[58] Clieux, when water rations dwindled during a difficult voyage, shared his portion with his precious plants and protected them from a Dutchman, perhaps an agent of the Provinces jealous of the Batavian trade.[59] Clieux nurtured the plants on his arrival in the West Indies, and established them in Guadeloupe and Saint-Domingue in addition to Martinique, where a blight had struck the cacao plantations, which were replaced by coffee plantations in a space of three years, is attributed to France through its colonization of many parts of the continent starting with the Martinique and the colonies of the West Indies where the first French coffee plantations were founded.

The first coffee plantation in Brazil occurred in 1727 when Lt. Col. Francisco de Melo Palheta smuggled seeds, still essentially from the germ plasm originally taken from Yemen to Batavia,[60] from French Guiana. By the 1800s, Brazil’s harvests would turn coffee from an elite indulgence to a drink for the masses. Brazil, which like most other countries cultivates coffee as a commercial commodity, relied heavily on slave labor from Africa for the viability of the plantations until the abolition of slavery in 1888. The success of coffee in 17th-century Europe was paralleled with the spread of the habit of tobacco smoking all over the continent during the course of the Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648).

For many decades in the 19th and early 20th centuries, Brazil was the biggest producer of coffee and a virtual monopolist in the trade. However, a policy of maintaining high prices soon opened opportunities to other nations, such as Colombia,[61] Guatemala, Nicaragua, Indonesia and Vietnam, now second only to Brazil as the major coffee producer in the world. Large-scale production in Vietnam began following normalization of trade relations with the US in 1995.[62] Nearly all of the coffee grown there is Robusta.[63]

Despite the origins of coffee cultivation in Ethiopia, that country produced only a small amount for export until the Twentieth Century, and much of that not from the south of the country but from the environs of Harar in the northeast. The Kingdom of Kaffa, home of the plant, was estimated to produce between 50,000 and 60,000 kilograms of coffee beans in the 1880s. Commercial production effectively began in 1907 with the founding of the inland port of Gambela. 100,000 kilograms of coffee was exported from Gambela in 1908, while in 1927–8 over 4 million kilograms passed through that port.[64] Coffee plantations were also developed in Arsi Province at the same time, and were eventually exported by means of the Addis Ababa – Djibouti Railway. While only 245,000 kilograms were freighted by the Railway, this amount jumped to 2,240,000 kilograms by 1922, surpassed exports of “Harari” coffee by 1925, and reached 9,260,000 kilograms in 1936.[65]

Australia is a minor coffee producer, with little product for export, but its coffee history goes back to 1880 when the first of 500 acres (2.0 km2) began to be developed in an area between northern New South Wales and Cooktown. Today there are several producers of Arabica coffee in Australia that use a mechanical harvesting system invented in 1981.